Cyber Attacks – 5 Examples & What You Need To Do

What Is A Cyber Attack?

Cyber attacks are an unauthorised and deliberate attempt to disrupt, access, steal, or damage a computer system or network by taking advantage of security vulnerabilities.

The main characteristics of cyber attacks involve unauthorised access, where cyber criminals breach the security measures in place to gain entry into a network or system.

Once inside, they may engage in data theft, stealing sensitive information such as personal data, financial records, or intellectual property. Additionally, cyber attacks can cause system damage, including the destruction or manipulation of data, rendering systems inoperable or unstable.

Overall, cyber attacks are a significant threat in today’s digitally-connected world, warranting the need for robust cyber security measures and constant vigilance to protect sensitive information and prevent potential damages.


Types of Cyber Attacks


There are many different types of Cyber attacks and they can take various forms and utilise different techniques to infiltrate and compromise systems and critical infrastructure.

Here are just a few examples of the wide range of cyber attacks that can occur. As technology advances, such as within artificial intelligence so do the methods and sophistication of attackers, making it crucial for individuals and organisations to stay vigilant and implement robust security measures.


Malware Attack

Malware attacks are one of common types of cyberattack where the threat actor use malicious software to infiltrate and compromise computer systems. There are several types of malware, each with its own method of operation and potential risks:

Macro Viruses

Macro viruses are malware that infects documents and spreadsheets, taking advantage of the macros feature in programs like Microsoft Office. When a user opens an infected file, the virus executes and can perform actions such as deleting files or spreading to other documents.

File Infectors

File infectors attach themselves to executable files, spreading when the infected file is executed. They can modify or overwrite the original file, potentially causing program malfunctions or data corruption. Well-known examples of file infectors include the CIH virus and the Sality virus.

System Infectors

System infectors, also known as boot sector viruses, infect the master boot record or the boot sector of a computer’s hard drive. When the infected system boots up, the virus executes and can take control of the computer. The Stoned virus and the Michelangelo virus are examples of system infectors.

Polymorphic Viruses

Polymorphic viruses are designed to evade detection by constantly changing their code, making them difficult to detect by antivirus software. They can mutate and encrypt themselves with each infection, making each instance of the virus unique and harder to identify.

Stealth Viruses

Stealth viruses conceal themselves in the system’s memory and actively hide their presence from the operating system and antivirus software. By intercepting and modifying low-level functions, they can avoid detection. The Chernobyl virus is a well-known example of a stealth virus.

Malware cyber attacks pose significant risks to computer systems, users and critical infrastructure. They can lead to data loss, system crashes, unauthorised access, and theft of sensitive information. It is crucial for users to have updated antivirus software and exercise caution when opening any suspicious files or emails to protect against these types of cyber attacks.


Phishing Attack

Phishing attacks are a type of cyberattack where malicious actors send deceitful emails, posing as trusted sources, with the intention of tricking recipients into revealing sensitive information or downloading malware. These are social engineering attacks and they rely on social engineering techniques to manipulate the victims into taking actions that compromise their security.

One common type of phishing attack is spear phishing, which targets specific individuals or organisations by personalising the fraudulent emails. This makes them more convincing and increases the likelihood of victims falling for the scam of the threat actor. Whaling is another form of phishing attack that specifically targets high-profile individuals, such as executives or celebrities, to gain access to valuable information or financial assets.

SMiShing, or SMS phishing, involves sending deceptive text messages to lure recipients into revealing sensitive information or clicking on malicious links. Similarly, vishing, or voice phishing, uses phone calls instead of emails to deceive victims into divulging personal information by posing as trusted authorities or organisations.

It is crucial to remain vigilant against phishing attacks and be cautious when interacting with unsolicited emails or messages. In order to protect ourselves, we should refrain from sharing sensitive information or downloading attachments from suspicious sources. Additionally, regularly updating cyber security software and educating oneself about the latest phishing techniques can help mitigate the risk of falling victim to these types of cyberattack and malicious activity.


DoS and DDoS Attacks

A Denial of Service (DoS) attack is the type of cyberattack that targets and overwhelms a system’s resources, rendering it unable to respond to legitimate service requests. It is typically carried out by flooding the target system with a high volume of requests or by exploiting vulnerabilities in its networking protocols or applications. The goal of a Denial of Service attack is to disrupt the services provided by the target system, causing inconvenience, financial losses, and reputational damage.

On the other hand, a Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) are a form of cyber attacks that involves multiple malware-infected host machines controlled by the attacker. These machines, often part of a botnet, simultaneously send a barrage of requests to the target system, overwhelming its resources and rendering it inaccessible to legitimate users. These types of Cyberattack are more sophisticated and harder to mitigate than traditional Denial of Service attack since they leverage the collective power of multiple machines.

The objective of both these types of cyber attacks is to disrupt or deny access to the target system’s services. By overwhelming system resources or saturating network bandwidth, these cyber attacks can make the system vulnerable to other types of cyberattacks, such as data breaches or unauthorised access.

Organisations should have robust cyber security measures, including network monitoring and incident response plans, to detect and mitigate the impact of DoS and DDoS attacks effectively. By staying vigilant and implementing appropriate safeguards, businesses can safeguard their systems and protect against the potentially devastating consequences of these seemingly never ending cyber threats.



Ransomware is a type of malicious software, or malware, that encrypts a victim’s data and holds it hostage until a ransom is paid. These types of cyberattack are purely for financial gain and are highly effective because it denies the victim access to their own resources, rendering them useless or unreadable.

Once ransomware infects a system, it quickly begins to encrypt files and folders, making them inaccessible. The bad actor then demands a payment, often in the form of cryptocurrency, in exchange for a decryption key that can unlock the encrypted data. The payment demanded is typically high, and the attacker often sets a deadline to increase pressure on the victim.

Ransomware attacks have become increasingly prevalent in recent years, with organisations and individuals falling victim to this type of attack on a daily basis. Small local and state government agencies have been particularly targeted, as they often have limited resources and less sophisticated security measures in place.

The growing trend of ransomware attacks highlights the need for robust security practices, including regular data backups and comprehensive security measures. It is also crucial for organisations to educate their employees about the risks of cyber attacks from opening suspicious email attachments or engaging in other risky online activities that can lead to infection.

In conclusion, ransomware is one of the common types of cyberattack and a dangerous form of malware that encrypts a victim’s data and demands payment for its release. It is a prevalent and growing threat, particularly affecting small local and state government agencies. To protect against ransomware attacks, organisations must implement strong cyber security measures and educate their employees about the risks associated with cyber threats.


MITM Attacks

MITM (Man-in-the-Middle) attacks are a type of cyberattack where an attacker intercepts and potentially alters communications between two parties without their knowledge. By doing so, the attacker gains control over the flow of information and can modify or steal sensitive data.

In a man in the middle attack, the attacker positions themselves between the sender and the receiver, intercepting the data that is being transmitted. This can be achieved by exploiting security vulnerabilities or by using malicious software. Once the data is intercepted, the attacker can modify it or even inject their own malicious code, leading to potential data breaches, financial loss, or identity theft.

To prevent MITM attacks, it is important to implement robust security measures. One effective measure is to use a Virtual Private Network (VPN), which encrypts communication between the sender and the receiver, making it difficult for attackers to intercept and decipher the data. Additionally, using strong encryption on access points, such as Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) or Transport Layer Security (TLS), can provide an added layer of protection against MITM attacks.

Educating users about the risks of MITM attacks and the importance of verifying the authenticity of websites and communication channels is also crucial. It is advisable to only access websites and online services that have a valid SSL/TLS certificate and to be cautious when connecting to public Wi-Fi networks.

By taking these preventative measures, individuals and organisations can significantly reduce the risk of falling victim to MITM attacks, enhance network security and protect their sensitive data from interception and modification.


Cyber attacks prevention, detection, and response

To effectively prevent, detect, and respond to the many types of cyberattacks, organisations must employ a combination of strategies, tools, and technologies.

Here are some key measures to consider:

1. Threat Management: Implementing a comprehensive threat management program is crucial. This involves conducting regular risk assessments, penetration testing, and vulnerability scanning to identify potential weaknesses in the organisation’s systems and network security.

2. Cybersecurity Systems: Deploying robust cyber security systems is essential. This includes using intrusion detection and prevention systems (IDPS) to monitor network traffic for suspicious activities and deploying security information and event management (SIEM) solutions to collect and analyse security event data.

3. Identity and Access Management (IAM) platforms: Implementing IAM platforms is vital to control and secure user access to critical systems and data. These platforms enable organisations to manage user identities, enforce strong authentication mechanisms, and restrict access based on user roles and responsibilities.

4. Data Loss Prevention (DLP) tools: Utilising DLP tools helps to identify, monitor, and protect sensitive data from unauthorised access or exfiltration. These tools can detect and prevent data leaks through email, file transfers, or other communication channels.

5. Firewalls: Deploying firewalls is a foundational step in protecting network environments. Firewalls serve as a barrier between internal networks and external threats, filtering incoming and outgoing network traffic based on specified security rules.

6. Security Awareness Training: Educating employees about cybersecurity risks and best practices is crucial. Regular security awareness training can help employees identify phishing emails, avoid downloading malicious attachments, and recognize other social engineering tactics used by cybercriminals.

7. Vulnerability Management: Establishing a robust vulnerability management process is essential to identify, prioritize, and remediate vulnerabilities in software and systems. This includes regularly patching and updating software and systems and implementing strong access controls.

8. Unified Endpoint Management: Implementing a unified endpoint management solution allows organisations to centralise the management and security of endpoints such as mobile devices, laptops, and desktops. This enables comprehensive monitoring, patching, and threat response across all endpoints.

By combining technology, people, and processes, organisations can enhance their cyber attacks prevention, detection, and response capabilities. These measures collectively bolster network security vulnerabilities, cybersecurity defenses, help organisations stay one step ahead of the many types of cyber attacks and protect critical infrastructures.